Posts Tagged ‘nickel-hydrogen’

Posted on July 28, 2015 by Frank Acland on E-Cat World • 84 Comments

Here are some recent comments from Andrea Rossi on the performance of the new version of the Hot Cat that he is currently testing. Most recent information at the top:

UPDATE #5 (July 28, 2015)

Andrea Rossi has just posted that the first model of the new Hot Cat has broken down. He wrote:

Tom Conover:
As I explained in another comment on this blog few hours ago, the new Hot Cat has been destroyed, but we are making another with a correction that should resolve the problem.

It makes me wonder if the Hot Cat went into some kind of thermal runaway mode. Rossi says that over the years hundreds of reactors have been destroyed by one means or another, sometimes intentionally. His experience should be helpful in making the needed adjustments.

Read the full article here:http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/07/28/rossis-hot-cat-hopes/

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The images provided of the nickel, at high magnification, show detailed structures that provide important clues to facilitate replication of the E-Cat.

Original posted @ pesn.com

By Hank Mills
Pure Energy Systems News

On October 8th of 2014, a group of scientists and researchers from across Europe released a paper describing a month long test of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat or Energy Catalyzer. (See PESWiki’s news chronicle of this as it unfolds.) In addition to reporting on a clearly anomalous production of heat — ~3.5 times more than the energy put into the system — this paper, completely uncensored, revealed crucial information about the composition of the fuel used in the device. The high performance of the device ruled out any known chemical source of power by many orders of magnitude. PESN posted a feature story about this paper titled, “Apocalypse: The Four Horsemen of Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat.”

Now, an additional paper has been released that provides additional analysis and even higher magnification scanning electron microscope images of the powder used in the reactor. In particular, nickel particles have been zoomed in on to reveal fine, detailed structures. These tubercles, cracks, and folds are most certainly critical to the ability of the E-Cat to produce practical quantities of power.

The article titled, “Analysis of Two Types of Nickel Powder” (source) was written in Swedish, but Google provides an adequate translation to English that seems fairly easy to read. The primary author of the paper is “Curt, Edstrom, Ralon”, and is dated January 17th, 2013.

The twenty-one-page paper provides the following introduction (translated by Google, with a few edits).

Samples obtained from Sven Kullander in December have been analyzed. The samples consisted of two bottles with approximately 1 gram in each bottle. One bottle is called “NEW” and contained the nickel powder Rossi used in the reactor, taken before any activity has occurred. The second bottle is called “OLD” and it contained powder used in one of Rossi’s reactors for about 6 months. This bottle also contained approximately 1 gram of powder.

When you look macroscopically on the samples, one can get the impression that nickel transformed by a nuclear reaction. At a more detailed level, it seems unlikely that the nickel is first converted to other elements where these then format the new structures. The only difference between the nickel powder in the new and old sample is a little “hump” in spectrum at the iron (Fig. 13 and 17 but not in Fig. 4), the signal is so weak that it is about trace amounts and may be derived from contamination of adjacent iron particles. If there is an exothermic nuclear reaction that can transform nickel isotopes or iron isotopes [they are] are unfamiliar [to us].

On the grain that contained Ni in the “old” sample measured no Cu whatsoever. The detection limit for Cu is lower than 1%, but to safely determine, the level should be about 1% Cu present. If there is some kind of unknown nuclear reaction where Cu is formed from Ni in any greater amount that is not decayed back to Ni, Cu must be embedded in the Ni grains.

Figure 9: The particles, which contained Cu in the old sample, contained 18% phosphorus, 12% oxygen and 70% copper.

A portion of this fragment can be oxidized, hence the presence of oxygen. Cu and P occur in a very common alloy used in brazing. Lod with CuP at these proportions are particularly common in plumbing jobs. Is it possible that this fragment is derived from such solder joints? The reactors constructed by Rossi seems to have consisted, among other things, of a brazed copper details.

To understand this paper, written in 2013, to the most recent paper released on Oct. 8th of 2014, you must realize that the powder tested in this older analysis was not from a different type of reactor. Certainly, the powder tested in 2013 did not come from the same model of high temperature reactor as in the 2014 analysis. Most likely, the powder came from a low temperature E-Cat reactor. Because of this, the additives or “catalysts” used in the two different powders are most likely different to some degree. However, I think it is likely that the basic nickel powder used is probably very similar. Both the old and new powder can produce vast quantities of excess heat when correctly stimulated by alternating current and heat.

A professional, high quality comparison of the analysis of the powder in both of these papers would be time consuming and require a great deal of knowledge in the field of material analysis. So in order to get the news out about the release of this paper, I will avoid going into excessive detail about every aspect of this paper. Other individuals, far more qualified than myself, will be more capable of providing such a comparison. Instead, I will post several facts and observations I have gathered from looking at the figures and reading the text of the paper.

More Fascinating Information 

As mentioned in the excerpt above, in this paper, two types of powder are studied: “new” and “old.” The new powder is fuel that had never been placed in an E-Cat reactor, and the old powder is fuel that had been used for six months. In alignment with the paper released on Oct. 8th, the new powder was composed of uniform particles of about one millimeter by one millimeter. The old powder, however, had a variety of particle geometries and was of a clumpy appearance. It seems that reactions took place in the old powder that may have caused the non-uniformity.

Analysis of the new powder revealed only carbon, oxygen, and nickel to be present. It is also important to understand that this method of testing cannot detect hydrogen or Lithium – both of which were found in the Oct. 8th paper. So these elements may, or may not, be present. The sample was prepared for analysis by placing it on a piece of tape which contained the elements carbon, hydrogen, and, according to the authors, possibly oxygen. This means it is possible that some percentage of the carbon and oxygen detected in the sample may be from the tape. The old powder, however, shows a wider variety of elements present, including the elements C, O, Mg, Si, P, Ca Fe, Cu, and Ni.

Various particles of the old powder contain different percentages of these elements. The report speculates that certain of these elements may be contaminates or from material used in the soldering of the reactor. Another important fact is that the testing method only determines the composition of the particles near their surface. The different composition of the old powder from the new powder could possibly be partly due to elements present deep in the particles.

Lithium and iron are both mentioned as potential catalysts, even though lithium was not detected. In the report released on Oct. 8th, both of these elements were detected. One aspect of the Oct. 8th report that excited me were the Scanning Electron Microscope images of the various particles. The ability to actually see, in some detail, the nickel particles was very exciting, because the protrusions or tubercles were visible. In the 2013 paper, however, the images are even more detailed, more numerous, and of a much higher magnification.

The Nickel Masterpiece of Andrea Rossi

My jaw dropped, literally, when I saw the images of the nickel particles in this paper. Although images of other particles were included, the nickel particles under high magnification were beautiful. Some of them appeared to be square in shape and composed of smaller cubes. Each sub-unit was visible, and they reminded me of brick work. Other particles were even more magnificent with spike like protrusions, ribbons, folds, and cracks. One very highly magnified particle seemed to contain geometric shapes. Although I’ve seen many images on the internet of nickel particles (commonly available for sale by suppliers) Rossi’s powder seemed more intricate and varied.

The above images show nickel particles at various levels of magnification. If the E-Cat is to be replicated, these surface features will need to be reproduced. (Sterling’s Comment: I’ve not followed this as closely as others, but an obvious question to me seems to be: Were the nickel particle attributes a pre-requisite condition by some preparatory process, or are they a function of the reaction itself — not a prerequisite, but a result?) I feel this will be every bit as critical in producing excess heat as choosing other additives and applying proper magnetic or RF stimulation with alternating current. What we do not know is if Andrea Rossi custom fabricates these particles in house from raw nickel, or if he purchases carbonyl nickel from a supplier and then further modifies them.

Bob Higgins is a researcher who has produced a document titled, “Surface Processing of Carbonyl Nickel Powder for Ni-H LENR Applications.” In this document, he obtains carbonyl nickel – with surface features similar to those found in Andrea Rossi’s powder – from a supplier and further modifies it through a process of adding nano FeO3 powder. He then runs the powder through a series of processing including the application of heat, sintering, and grinding. The result are particles that look similar to those in Rossi’s powder.

Rossi Should Not Reveal The Catalyst, Until Intellectual Property Rights Are Protected

Property of Andrea Rossi

Property of Andrea Rossi

 

I have an interest in science, but as I am not a scientist, I care much less about understanding the physics of why the E-Cat device works than whether it produces heat or not.  Instinctively, I have had a positive opinion of the E-Cat since first hearing about the device in January, 2011.  After the March 2013 independent tests by accredited scientists obtained positive results, I have no doubt that it works, and that there has never been anything hidden under a deceptive sleeve.  Eventually, the world will understand the science behind the anomalous heat energy production of the E-Cat  device, but it seems that the only evidence that will allay skeptical criticism  is revelation of the secret catalyzing agent.  This undoubtedly has to be considered the intellectual property of Andrea Rossi and must be legally protected before divulgence.

I dislike the current Catch-22, and am openly impatient for the progression of what could be an immensely beneficial, clean energy technology for the good of the entire planet.

in Italiano
TEDxBologna – Sergio Focardi – L’E-cat e la fusione nucleare con il Nichel e l’Idrogeno

Uploaded by on Nov 7, 2011

http://www.tedxbologna.com

Professore emerito del dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bologna, ha contribuito alla costruzione della macchina E-Cat, macchina che produce energia elettrica con un processo fisico-chimico ancora sconosciuto.

Preside fino al 1990 della facoltà di scienze matematiche, fisiche e naturali dell’Alma Mater, ha poi diretto la sezione di Bologna dell’Istituto nazionale di fisica nucleare.
Ha concentrato i suoi studi scientifici sulla fusione fredda con reattori Nichel-Idrogeno ed ha collaborato con Andrea Rossi per la realizzazione dell’ E-Cat, un meccanismo per la fusione nucleare a freddo

 

The skeptical slant of the article does nothing but place doubt in the mind of the reader.  The E-cat has been repeatedly tested and verified by many physicists; including representatives of the Swedish Skeptics Society, Professor Emeritus Sergio Focardi of the university of Bologna and others.  While skepticism is necessary regarding such a profound discovery, there comes a point where the proof wins out over the armchair.  The E-cat is definitely NOT a hoax.  In fact, it is now commercially available.  Skeptics can buy one and test it all they want.  Clean energy has arrived!

nickel-hydrogen

Italian scientist claims he has achieved ‘cold fusion’ – the only problem is that most physicists think it is impossible (Daily Mail Online)

  • Andrea Rossi says he can fuse nickel and hydrogen at room temperature creating almost unlimited energy
  • Many scientists simply claim it defies the very laws of physics and cannot be true

By Martin Robinson

Last updated at 4:56 PM on 4th November 2011

True or false? Andrea Rossi says he has built a machine achieving 'cold fusion' but scientists question if it is possible

An Italian physicist claims he has managed to achieve ‘cold fusion’ – a procedure that could solve the world’s energy crisis by creating huge amounts of safe nuclear energy without dangerous radiation.

Andrea Rossi says his new machine fuses nickel and hydrogen at room temperature creating almost unlimited energy.

But there is one problem – many scientists claim it defies the very laws of physics. Several high-profile demonstrations of ‘cold fusion’ have been proven to be hoaxes in the past – and no one can adequately explain how or why it might work.

The United States Department of Energy the U.S. Patent Office say the process is impossible because physics rules out the possibility of room-temperature nuclear fusion.

But Rossi’s E-Cat machine can allegedly do it, and he says he proved it worked during tests at the University of Bologna last month.

‘With low energy, it’s possible to give a heater a certain amount of energy and to get from the same heater a superior amount of energy,’ he said.

‘The heat is initiated by electrical resistance. The reactors then produce another 479kWh of energy for another three to four hours without needing that initial electrical input — the low-level nuclear reaction continues on its own.

True or false? Andrea Rossi, pictured, says he has built a machine achieving’ cold fusion’ but scientists question

if it is possible

Machine: Professor Rossi's E-Cat was tested last month and produced huge amounts of non-radioactive energy, he says
Machine: Professor Rossi’s E-Cat was tested last month and produced huge

amounts of non-radioactive energy, he says

Key: Rossi says he ha produced a pattern of triple track atoms, pictured, which is at the heart of the cold fusion theory
Key: Rossi says he has produced a pattern of triple track atoms, pictured,

which is at the heart of the cold fusion theory

‘The test we made by the customer was to see if the process was working properly, and to control whether the energy was in an amount superior to the amount supplied to the system.

‘We have nothing to say, just to make plans that work properly and let those facts win against the scepticism.’

The idea of cold fusion was put forward by in the 1920s by Austrian scientists Friedrich Paneth and Kurt Peters.

But despite several people saying they have done it, it has been dismissed by most physicists.

An atom is a nucleus of protons and neutrons, with electrons orbiting around
An atom is a nucleus of protons and neutrons, with electrons orbiting around

Scientists say that Rossi’s claims must be taken from his lab and analysed before he can claim he has done it.

Energy consultant Jonathan Koomey said ‘[The E-Cat experiment] should be treated as a hoax until independent scientists are able to replicate these results,’

But Sterling Allan, CEO of the alternative energy news agency Pure Energy Systems, told FoxNews.com he attended Rossi’s demonstration and the E-Cat is self sustaining.

‘What Rossi demonstrated was 470 kilowatts of continuous output in self-sustain mode — meaning the output was enough to keep the thing running on its own,’ he said.

Av: Mats Lewan
Published 29, October 2011 01:59 34 kommentarer

UPDATED. Half a megawatt thermal power in self sustained mode, for over five hours. That’s what Andrea Rossi obtained with his E-cat plant on Friday, according to his customer. The question now is who the customer was.

Rossi outside the building during the test. In the background the heat plant with pumps and water tanks to the right, additional Ecats on the top and the steam outlet to the left.Rossi outside the building during the test. In the background the heat plant with pumps and water tanks to the right, additional Ecats on the top and the steam outlet to the left. Photo: Mats LewanThe customer's controller Domenico Fioravanti.The customer’s controller Domenico Fioravanti. Photo: Mats LewanTwo of the four heat dissipators.Two of the four heat dissipators. Photo: Mats Lewan
Manometer at one of the waterpumps indicating a pressure of almost 4 bars.Manometer at one of the waterpumps indicating a pressure of almost 4 bars. Photo: Mats Lewan

A water leakage could be observed efter the end of the test.A water leakage could be observed after the end of the test. Photo: Mats Lewan

Read more

(Swedish version here).

At about quarter past ten on Friday October 28, the test of Andrea Rossi’s heat plant, potentially producing one megawatt, was initiated in an industrial hangar in Bologna.

The plant consisted of more than 100 ‘energy catalyzers’ – Rossi’s invention that possibly produces heat from a hitherto unknown nuclear reaction – connected in parallel.

Already in January 2011 when the E-cat was demonstrated publicly for the first time before a group of invited scientists and journalists in Bologna, Rossi promised the launch of a one megawatt plant in October.

The test was supposed to be performed together with the Greek company Defkalion, and later, after a breach of contract in August, in the US.  Finally, as the US agreement was never put in place, the test was performed in Bologna under the control of a yet unknown customer to Rossi.

According to the customer’s controller, Domenico Fioravanti, the plant released 2,635 kWh during five and a half hours of self sustained mode, which is equivalent to an average power of 479 kilowatts – just under half the promised power of one megawatt.

Rossi explained this with the customer’s priority to achieve self sustained mode, which supposedly makes the process more difficult to control than when electrical power is supplied to support the reaction.

“We had to decrease the power during self sustained mode as the temperature rose too much”, Rossi said after the test.

Neither Ny Teknik nor any other of the guests had any possibility to check the measurements made. The invitees could only observe the plant in operation for a few brief moments.

Assuming that the report is correct (the report can be downloaded here, the temperature data here), a substantial amount of energy was released, which is difficult to explain by anything other than heat being developed inside the E-cat, even if you subtract the power input during pre-heating.

UPDATE: There are two minor errors in the report. See below.

According to the report the test was approved and the plant would now be transported to the customer where it supposedly will be part of an agreement on further tests in order to develop the technology.

It remains unclear who the customer is. Rossi has only indicated that it belongs to a particular category of organizations. One possibility is that it’s a military organization given that the title of the controller Fioravanti in the report is “colonel”, however, scored out with a pen.

Rossi stated that an agreed contract research at the University of Bologna can now be initiated and that discussions on collaboration with Uppsala University can get started.

There’s still no clear indication of when a test performed by independent experts can be done, although this is still what both readers of Ny Teknik and most experts Ny Teknik has spoken to demand.

– – – –

READ MORE: Our complete coverage on Rossi’s E-cat can be found here.

– – – –

More details on the test here below.

– – – –

UPDATE: David Roberson who made one of three analyses that Ny Teknik published last week on the October 6 test , has made an updated analysis here, which he claims contains proof that the E-cat generated a large amount of excess energy.
Also Horace Heffner’s analysis has been updated.

– – – –

UPDATE 2: There are two minor errors in the customer’s report:
1. The weight of the hydrogen bottle should be in grams, not kg as indicated.
2. The indicated flow rate of the pumps at the end of the report should be 350 kg/hour, not 750 kg/hour, giving a total of 700 kg/h, not 1,500 kg/h, for the two pumps.
(The measured average flow rate of 675.6 l/h in the first part of the report should be correct).

E-Cat 1 MW Unit Test, October 28, 2011.

From:

PES Network, Inc.

@PESNetwork PES Network, Inc.
Q&A just finished; reading of results; 470 kW maintained continuously during self-sustain; customer satisfied; sale made; more later.
Here’s a video of today’s 1 MW E-Cat while being tested. Video starts and ends with radiators.